This practical coursebook introduces all the basics of semantics in a simple, step- by-step fashion. Each unit includes short sections of. This elementary coursebook has been carefully planned to introduce students by discovering the value and fascination of studying semantics, and move on to. : Semantics: A Coursebook (): James R. Hurford, Brendan Heasley, Michael B. Smith: Books.
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T didn’t know Jack had a son’ A: Semantics is still a relatively new discipline. Nevertheless all these words, almost, probable, and, if, and above have some sense.
Turning away now from the question of opacity, and back to the more basic notion of referring expressions, we define a further notion, that of equative sentence. As an English teacher and a long-time student of several foreign languages, I have a fairly broad background in general linguistics.
T could eat a horse! Despite the obvious syntactic differences between these different types of words, semantically they all share the property of being able to function as the predicators of sentences.
Professor John Lyons for extremely careful and detailed critical comments on virtually the whole of the book, coursebookk which, in the many cases where we have heeded them, definitely improve the book.
John, you, or I mean? Imagine a very impoverished little universe of discourse containing only the objects depicted. There are as many potential referents for the phrase your left ear as there are people in the world with hurtord ears.
Semantics: A Coursebook
For convenience at this point we use the idea of reference to include clearly delimited collections of things. TIF 3 Conjunctions like English and or German und, or French et have yet a further kind of meaning from both proper names and common nouns, and prepositions.
If you feel you understand these notions, take the entry test below. Definition The CONTEXT of an utterance is a small subpart of the universe of discourse shared by speaker and hearer, and includes facts about the topic of the conversation in which the utterance occurs, and also facts about the situation in which the zemantics itself takes place.
For instance, write in example 2 carries more specific information than is and the suffix -ing. Yes I No 2 So, in the above example, is a man a referring expression?
Yes I No 5 Ignoring the problem that tense is a deictic category, could Johan Couursebook inform anyone of any fact about himself if his hearer does not happen semanyics know his name? While it is true that many sentences do carry information in a straightforward way, it is also true that many sentences are used by speakers not to give information at all, but to keep the social wheels turning smoothly.
Practice In the present-day world, 1 Is it a fact that there are lions in Africa? Sometimes you’re very inconsiderate’ Husband: But in each case it is possible to discern one word or part of a word which ‘carries more meaning’ than the others.
Til meet you here tomorrow. Not all sentences are of this type. Sentence meaning and speaker meaning are both courseebook, but systematic study proceeds more easily if one carefully distinguishes the two, and, for the most part, gives prior consideration to sentence meaning and those aspects semanticd meaning generally which are determined by the language system, rather than those which reflect the will of individual speakers and the circumstances of use on particular occasions.
But a few nouns could be said to be ‘inherently relational’. Every speaker of Zonglish would have to use his own name instead of the personal pronoun I.
Semantics: A Coursebook by James R. Hurford
Yes I No 3 Is it a fact that the state of Arkansas is uninhabited by human beings? By uttering a simple interrogative or imperative, a speaker can mention a particular proposition, without asserting its truth. In uttering a declarative sentence a speaker typically asserts a proposition. The atheist’s assumed universe of discourse is a world in which God does not exist.
We shall not try to resolve this issue here.
Account Options Sign in. We say that corresponding declaratives and interrogatives and imperatives have the same propositional content. It is not unusual to find utterances that consist of one or more grammatically incomplete sentence-fragments.
Predicates referring expressions and universe of discourse. Aristotle can be regarded as a forerunner of modern semantics, just as Hecataeus was a forerunner of modern geography. What exactly hyrford proposition is, is much debated by semanticists.